Plane contrails have been found to increase heat in the upper atmosphere.

When an aircraft passes by overhead, it sometimes leaves a trail. These white lines of cloud, marking the path of the flight, are known as contrails. But why do they leave them, what are they made of, and are they always the same? Let’s take a look.

What are contrails?

Contrails are literally tiny clouds. They are formed from water vapor which freezes around small particles from the aircraft exhaust. Some of the water vapor is from the air itself, whilst some comes from the aircraft’s own exhaust. Much like a car might make a little white cloud near its exhaust on a cold morning, a plane will often leave a trail if the conditions are right.

Exhaust from jet engines is pretty much all water vapor, although there can be trace content of sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, unburnt fuel, soot and small particles of metal. These aerosols provide condensation sites for water vapor, as do any small particles in the air it is flying through.

Types of contrails

Although contrails are all made of the same things and created in the same manner, observant skywatchers will know that they don’t always behave the same. Some aircraft leave long, defined contrails that persist for several hours after the plane has passed; others leave very short trails that disappear fast. Why is this?

Well, it’s all to do with the air that the aircraft is passing through. Contrails are generally categorized into three groups; short-lived, persistent (non-spreading) and persistent (spreading).

  • Short-lived: These contrails are the smallest ones in the sky. They often look like a short white line following the aircraft’s path, like the tail of a comet. However, they often disappear almost as fast as the plane moves, often lasting no more than a few minutes. This is due to the plane passing through relatively dry air, with only a small amount of water content. As such, the ice that is formed soon becomes vapor again, and the contrail vanishes.
  • Persistent contrails (non-spreading): These are the long white lines that often crisscross the skies on a sunny day. They can remain for many hours after the aircraft has passed by, and generally stay fairly defined for some time. This means the plane is passing through very humid air, with lots of water vapor around.
  • Persistent contrails (spreading): Contrails that persist but don’t stay in a defined form, rather billow out into fuzzy lines, are known as spreading. These are the contrails that are of most concern to environmentalists, as they create man-made clouds that cover a wider area and are thought to be contributing to climate change.

What planes don’t leave a contrail?

Sometimes, even in the same patch of sky, one plane will leave a trail and one will not. Why is this?

Planes with hotter engines are less likely to form contrails, as the heat of the exhaust prevents ice from forming. Modern planes with more efficient engines burn hotter, but use bypass air to cool the exhaust, making them more likely to leave contrails in a wider range of situations.

However, the simplest reason for whether a plane makes a contrail or not is down to the environment in which it is flying. When the plane is in wet air, it makes a contrail, when it’s not, it doesn’t. It’s really as simple as that.

You might wonder why you’re seeing two planes in the sky at the same time and one is leaving a long trail while the other is not. That’s because the planes are at different altitudes. One is flying in moist air, while the other is flying in drier conditions.

What else do you know about contrails? What else do you want to know? Let us know in the comments!


Easton Airport Day to showcase new ACE education program

We are proud of amazing Midwest ATC employees for “stepping up” to help this awesome ACE Program. The below testimonial is from the Airport Manager. Great job Team!

Hello Midwest Team,

I just wanted to let you all know that your team at Easton FCT has gone “above and beyond” to support our airport’s newly launched education program. I have attached a news article that ran in today’s local paper, the STAR DEMOCRAT. (

The whole tower team has been welcoming of tours for the students, but I want to commend Scott and Eloy especially, for volunteering many hours to teach students about Air Traffic Control. As a former controller and ATM, I know how valuable time is. For these gentlemen to volunteer to help our program is truly remarkable. I just wanted to share some good news.

Micah Risher

Airport Manager

Easton Airport (ESN)

EASTON — Although the Aviation Career Education program is barely off the ground, the sky’s the limit for local youth who want to explore the possibilities.

“Nobody else is doing this in the state,” said ACE organizer and Easton Airport Manager Micah Risher. Creating an education program was a top priority for him when he became the airport manager last year.

In just nine short months, kids have responded enthusiastically. During a 4-day summer drone camp, for instance, 32 kids participated. Risher hopes future classes will be just as successful.

Risher, who grew up in Trappe, graduated from Easton High School in 1993 and now lives in Easton. He wants to get “the community out to the airport,” and he wants the get kids excited about aviation.

“We have seen a steady decline in the industry,” Risher said. “One of my missions in October 2018 was to increase the educational outreach of the airport.”

The ACE program will be highlighted at Easton Airport Day from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturday, Sept. 21.

The purpose of the ACE program is to provide students the opportunity to explore careers in the aerospace industry by introducing them to a variety of aviation-related career paths and providing resources and support to help them pursue a career in the aerospace industry.

ACE “loosely partners with the Federal Aviation Administration which provides support,” said Risher, who worked at FAA headquarters for four years. Funding for the Easton Airport ACE program is also supplied through a nonprofit managed by the Mid-Shore Community Foundation.

The program will promote interest in aviation careers by teaching safe operating principles, using leading edge technology and committing to the future of aviation in Talbot County. Specific careers emphasized in the program are air traffic control, piloting, drones and aviation mechanics, Risher said.

Easton Airport air traffic controller Eloy Reyes of Easton said he has found his 10-year career “extremely rewarding.”

“From my own personal perspective, not knowing anything about aviation — I thought air traffic controlling was for geniuses,” Reyes said. He discovered his career in the Air Force, and for those 10 years, he discovered that becoming an air traffic controller simply required good training and building a set of marketable skills.

“I love the ACE program and where (Risher) is going with it,” Reyes said. “I volunteered for it because it’s important for kids to know about the opportunities (in aviation).”

Risher also gained his skills in the armed forces, learning to become an air traffic controller in the Navy. “It was a great career path,” Risher said. “I grew up in Talbot County, but I didn’t know anything about aviation” even with an county-owned airport nearby.

Wanting to give back, Risher’s 25-year success as an air traffic controller led him to mentor a local high school junior who interned at the airport in July. He has “loved everything” about his experiences since joining ACE in February, local experts volunteered to teach the courses after school at the airport, Risher said.

Risher has big plans for the program. Already, the management offices have moved to the 3,200-foot former Med-Star hangar where there is “huge expanse of amazing space,” including training space, he said. Joining a library will be a flight simulator project Risher hopes to “get up and running in the winter.” He even has plans to build an air traffic control simulator. The next class is planned for October.

“We’re still exploring what the program could be,” Risher said. “It’s baby steps, but it’s really exciting.”

Airport Day visitors can stop by the ACE program tent to learn about the upcoming STEM Festival and Aviation Expo in October, and enter a raffle to raise funds to support the program.

Hurricane Hunters fly Hurricane Dorian

By Tech. Sgt. Christopher Carranza, 403rd Wing Public Affairs / Published August 29, 2019

A WC-130J Super Hercules from the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, known as Hurricane Hunters, taxis to the runway Aug. 25, 2019 at Keesler Air Force Base, Miss. The Hurricane Hunters staged their aircraft in the Dutch Caribbean island, Curaçao and began flying into Hurricane Dorian Aug. 26. (U.S. Air Force photo by Jessica L. Kendziorek)


Three WC-130Js and one C-130J Super Hercules aircraft from the 403rd Wing departed Keesler Air Force Base Aug. 26 for the Dutch Caribbean island Curaçao to provide weather reconnaissance support for Hurricane Dorian.

“The three weather crews, assigned to the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, have been flying missions as of last night,” said Maj. Kendall Dunn, 53rd WRS pilot. “The tactical airlift crew, assigned to the 815th Airlift Squadron, is carrying extra cargo and aircraft parts to support the weather aircraft.”

According to the National Hurricane Center website, hurricane conditions are likely over parts of the Bahamas and the southeastern U.S. over the Labor Day weekend.

The Hurricane Hunters have been flying “fixed” missions. During a fixed mission, the aircraft collects weather data such as temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity and surface pressure. Aircrews fly through the eye of a storm four to six times to locate the low-pressure center and circulation of the storm. During each pass through the eye, they release a dropsonde, which collects weather data on its descent to the ocean surface, specifically gathering data on the surface winds and pressure.

Due to a lack of radar and weather balloons availability over the Atlantic Ocean, the 53rd WRS flies into the storms, gathers the data and provides this data to the NHC to assist with their forecasts and storm warnings by transmitting the information gathered via satellite communication approximately every 10 minutes.

The 53rd WRS’s operations area ranges from the meridian 55 degrees longitude line in the Atlantic Ocean to the International Dateline in the Pacific Ocean. They also support 24-hour continuous operations with the ability to fly up to three storms simultaneously and with a response time of 16 hours.

“As of now we’re flying missions out of Curaçao, but will be repositioning to fly out of Homestead (Air Reserve Base, Florida) as the storm gets closer to the U.S.,” Dunn said. “It’s like chess, this is the time where experience is crucial for planning and staging our mission. This is why reservists are invaluable to our mission.”

Flying with the vintage WWII stunt team that just buzzed Atlantic City

Pilots line up to join the Geico Skytypers, despite the possibility of crashes.

Standing a little under five and a half feet high, Steve Kapur is small but compact. His fierce stance suggests he’s more than capable of guiding 5,500 pounds of metal in precision turns thousands of feet in the air, then guiding it down in perfect alignment.

That’s what he does as part of the Geico Skytyper Air Show Team, a one-of-a-kind outfit that flies classic World War II planes in precision formation, wowing airshow audiences across the U.S.

At the end of August, the vintage daredevils were stationed in South Jersey, participating in the Atlantic City Air Show with the Thunderbirds, Blue Angels and other elite aviation outfits.

Unlike modern aircraft, there’s no front wheel on the Skytypers’ refurbished antiques. If the wings are just slightly off balance on landing, Kapur said, the nose can take a devastating spiral dive into the runway. Any number of other things can go wrong when you’re dealing with 70-year-old parts — and if something goes awry in the air, it can result in death.

Despite the possibility of crashes, a position with the Skytypers is highly sought after, said squad owner Larry Arken. There’s basically no other pilot job like it.

Along with reporters and photojournalists from the Philadelphia InquirerFox29, the Press of Atlantic CitySNJ Today and other publications, I got a chance to hop on board and experience the whole thing from right behind the cockpit.

During shows, Kapur, Arken and other pilots maneuver their half-dozen North American SNJ-2 aircraft in sync, sometimes leaving less than a sidewalk’s width between their 42-foot-wingspans as they execute eye-popping rolls, loops, spins, snaps and dives.

Ear-popping is another good way to describe the stunts — something you quickly discover if you have the lucky opportunity to play passenger during a practice flight.

The other thing you learn in short order? It takes intense discipline to pull off the entertaining aerial display.

“We run this like a military operation,” Kapur said, “because that’s the safest way to fly.”

From ‘pilot maker’ to stunt plane

Originally built in the early 1940s for training exercises, the SNJ was known as the “pilot maker” for Allied forces during the war.

The planes were eventually deployed into action, and also were used tactically during the Korean War. The model is known by various monikers: the Air Force calls it the T-6 Texan, while the British armed forces refer to it as the Harvard.

A total of about 15,500 of the planes were manufactured, and variants were used to train pilots in nearly three dozen countries around the globe.

The Geico team’s fleet is specially tricked out, with a combination of the latest in modern tech tucked inside its antique features. It’s outfitted with advanced GPS tracking and enlarged 180-gallon tanks, which carry enough fuel to run the 600-horsepower engines for more than four hours.

Most of the Skytyper crew comes from military backgrounds, and are now retired into commercial flight. Several fly for the big airlines as their main job, then switch to the Geico team for a cherished summer gig.

Even with these experienced navigators at the controls, accidents do happen.

In May 2018, as the team was flying from one show to the next, a pilot from Doylestown, Pa.,was killed after his aircraft went into a spiral nosedive that ended in a fiery crash on Long Island, according to various reports. That accident came just over a decade after another Skytyper pilot died when his plane faltered and slammed into a wooded area in Virginia, per the NY Daily News.

‘Unreal’ concentration to pull off the stunts

I rode with Steve Salmira, a Skytyper member for 23 years who boasts about being the best stick-handler in the group. His online bio says colleagues call him “SkyKing.”

In the Air Force he flew F-16s and now he flies commercial jets. Those experiences let him really appreciate the durability and flexibility of the Skytyper restored antiques, he explained.

“We all do it for the love of aviation,” Salmira said about his side hustle. “These historic warbirds are incredibly gentle.”

It didn’t feel so gentle when we executed a vertical up and the g-forces shoved my stars-and-stripes helmet close around my head, but most of the aerobatics were as smooth as a conveyor belt.

The astonishing thing was how close the other planes were. I could see my colleague grinning in the back of the cockpit on our left, and the wingtips seemed ready to graze when we were making hard turns.

Formation flying takes a special kind of brainpower, according to the other Steve. When Kapur first joined the squad around 18 years ago, just a short session would knock the wind from his sails.

“It’s a lot of fun, but [learning was] a mental challenge,” Kapur recalled. “I’d come back from a 30-minute flight and just pass out. The concentration it takes is unreal.”

Made possible by Geico

When he’s not in the air, Kapur acts as marketing director for the team.

Back in the early 2000s, it was his idea to turn the Skytypers into a phenomenon by signing up Geico as the title sponsor. The funding allowed the fleet to transition from it ultilitarian skywriting ad duties into the elite performance unit it is today.

In return for the branding, the insurance giant pays for the pilots and year-round upkeep by a full-time four-person ground crew, thus guaranteeing the team’s continued appearance at shows around the country.

On off weeks at headquarters in New York, or in Florida, where several are stored during the winter, the impressive stunt planes do still get rented out for advertising displays. Having your message printed in the sky over Jones Beach might run $2,000 for one time, according to Arken, whose dad started that business after the war ended.

Morty Arken originally owned 12 of the aircraft, his son said, but sold six of them to an outfit in California that uses them for skywriting and training only. These days, the younger Arken has a waiting list of pilots who want to join his stunt group, despite the known vulnerabilities.

For someone who loves both the art and science of aviation, Arken said, there’s pretty much nothing else in the world like the Geico Skytyper team.

Virgin Galactic Inaugurated Its ‘Gateway to Space’ by Flying ‘Eve’ Over Spaceport America

SPACEPORT AMERICA, N.M. — Virgin Galactic’s newly refurbished home base now has a flight under its belt.

The spaceflight company, which aims to start launching paying customers to suborbital space in the near future, declared its “Gateway to Space” building here operational yesterday (Aug. 15).

During a media event, Virgin Galactic showed off the completed interiors of the structure’s first and second floors, which house communal social areas and the spaceflight-operations sector, respectively. (The third floor, which will harbor an astronaut lounge, should be done in the next few months, company representatives said.)

Related: How Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo Works (Infographic)

Yesterday’s festivities included a flight by VMS Eve, the carrier aircraft that hauls the six-passenger VSS Unity space plane to an altitude of about 50,000 feet (15,000 meters). At that point, Unity drops free and engages its rocket motor, powering itself upward. (“VMS” stands for “Virgin Mother Ship,” by the way, and “VSS” for “Virgin Spaceship.”)

Eve and Unity have flown many test missions together over the past few years. The most recent two liftoffs — in December 2018 and February of this year — saw Unity reach suborbital space, earning four Virgin Galactic pilots and chief astronaut instructor Beth Moses their commercial astronaut wings.

Those flights all originated from the Mojave Air and Space Port in southern California, where Virgin Galactic’s test program was based. But after the back-to-back spaceflight successes in December and February, the company announced that the test campaign’s final phases would take place here in southern New Mexico, the site of Virgin Galactic’s future commercial operations. (More than 600 people have already booked a ride to suborbital space with the company; a ticket currently costs $250,000.)

Eve flew alone yesterday — Unity remains in Mojave, getting its cabin touched up — but the 90-minute flight was no stunt. Virgin Galactic wanted to give pilot Kelly Latimer and co-pilot Mark “Forger” Stucky more familiarity with southern New Mexico’s airspace and landscape, and to make sure there was solid data exchange between Eve and mission control, among other objectives.

And things went well, team members said.

“All of that looked really, really good today,” Virgin Galactic flight director Bill Kuhlemeier told reporters shortly after Eve touched down.

Eve has flown such solo sorties from Spaceport America before, but not since 2016, said Virgin Galactic president Mike Moses. And yesterday’s flight was the first to use the newly installed mission control center.

“Every other time, we brought a trailer of stuff with us,” Moses told, referring to the temporary mission control the team had to set up here.

“The big change is, home is here now,” he added. “That’s a big mental shift for the team.”

Eve will perform a few more flights here over the coming weeks, Moses said. Sometime in the next few months, the carrier plane will fly back to Mojave, grab Unity, and haul the spacecraft here to its new home.

VMS Eve is the first of Virgin Galactic’s carrier planes, which go by the generic name WhiteKnightTwo. VSS Unity, meanwhile, is the second of the SpaceShipTwo space planes flown by the company.

The first, VSS Enterprise, broke apart during a rocket-powered test flight in October 2014, a tragic accident that killed co-pilot Michael Alsbury and wounded pilot Peter Siebold. Investigators traced the cause to Enterprise’s “feathering” re-entry system, which was deployed too early in the flight. Virgin Galactic redesigned SpaceShipTwo to ensure the same problem would not happen with VSS Unity or any other future spaceships.

And Unity will have company, if all goes according to plan. Two additional SpaceShipTwo vehicles are currently being built, and one of them should be ready to start test flights next year, Moses said. The two in production have informal internal names, he added, but Virgin Galactic isn’t ready to tell us what they are.

“They’re Serial Nos. 3 and 4 for now,” he said.

The Gateway to Space can accommodate these planned vehicles and more. The cavernous hangar that occupies the building’s center space can fit two WhiteKnightTwos and five SpaceShipTwos simultaneously, Virgin Galactic representatives said.

FAA funds will help airport with taxiway lights

The city airport may have had some setbacks with budget cuts to projected upgrades, but a federal grant is making up for the losses.

Tahlequah City Municipal Airport Manager Kelly Crittenden was hired in July 2018 to replace retired manager Greg Blish.

“I’m new to the job as an airport manager, but I’m not new to aviation,” said Crittenden. “I worked as a professional pilot for about 35 years.”

He received his aviation education at Spartan College of Aeronautics and Technology and has more than 13,000 hours of flight experience.

The city airport has 63 based aircraft and a 5,000-foot runway that accommodates almost all light jet traffic.

While the airport brings in people for tourism and pilot practice, it also serves as a relief outlet for Tulsa and Fayetteville. Although it’s a rare occurrence, when those planes experience an emergency, they are diverted to Tahlequah.

During a June 3 meeting, the City Council approved a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration that will provide a taxiway lighting system to make it easier for pilots to maneuver after they land.

“We basically have a five-year program and we use that grant money for the projects that we come up with or we think we need improvement on,” said Crittenden. “We get $150,000 every year from the grant program that the federal government puts out, and we can bank that money for about three or four years and build it up to where we can do some nice projects.”

The current grant dollar amount for the lighting system is $119,000, with a match from the FAA. The FAA will pay 90 percent, while the city pays 10 percent, or $11,900. Estimated construction cost is between $500,000 and $600,000.

“Usually the city doesn’t have the money to maintain these little airports, and the feds want to maintain a federal airway system, so they provide this grant money and the airports can keep their facilities in good shape,” said Crittenden.

The airport did see a few cuts in its budget this year, and Crittenden said he will adapt and make ends meet. Funds from the FAA grant cannot contribute to a fuel system upgrade that made the cut.

“The city spends money on more of your day-to-day expenses and the big projects are taken care of with the grant money. We were planning on an upgrade to our fuel system because we put this in about 20 year ago. There’s definitely a need to upgrade, and that all got cut,” said Crittenden.

The manager said he feels comfortable having to make the changes and plans to do what he must do to keep the airport growing.

NBAA working with FAA to ensure ADS-B flight-tracking Opt-Out continues

Given the long-standing recognition by government and industry of the need to maintain in-flight security, NBAA is working with the FAA and other stakeholders to identify the most effective means to ensure that operators continue to have the ability to opt out from having their flights tracked in real time, following a conversation many aircraft will make to new ADS-B technology, starting Jan. 1, 2020.

NBAA – through its involvement with the FAA’s Equip 2020 working group, as well as engagement with the FAA’s Surveillance and Broadcast Services, System Wide Information Management and System Operations Services groups – is working with the agency and other general aviation associations to develop an opt-out solution, based on providing operators an alternate 24-bit ICAO (Mode S transponder) code.

Under this solution, operators would retain their permanent transponder code tied to an aircraft’s N-number, but would also be able to use a secondary, non-published code, assigned and managed by the FAA, which would not link to the specific aircraft tail number. It is expected that operators could request a new secondary code at least once every 30 days.

The addition of this new, secondary ICAO code program to the existing FAA Blocked Aircraft Registration Request (BARR) program would address not only what information managed by FAA is shared under BARR, but also the data transmitted by the aircraft itself to determine its identification throughout the NAS. While private ADS-B receivers could still detect an aircraft flying overhead, they would not see any information allowing them to match that aircraft to the owner listed in the FAA Registry.

“Everyone agrees that a person shouldn’t need to give up his or her security when boarding an airplane,” said NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen. “We remain committed to working with the FAA and others to ensure that operators are given an ability to opt out from having their flights tracked in real time, basically by anyone, anywhere in the world, who happens to have the appropriate equipment for doing so, and whose intentions may be unknown.”

Since 2000, Congress has repeatedly passed legislation mandating that the FAA provide a means for opting out from real-time flight tracking, regardless of the technology involved. While such a provision has long been in effect in the U.S., it does not necessarily apply to international flights.


“FAA Publishes New 2020 ADS-B Pre-Flight Policy”

When the FAA’s ADS-B Out regulation becomes effective next year, operators will need to predict the availability of the GPS constellation along their planned route and comply with a number of operational stipulations the FAA has outlined in its newly published policy on pre-flight performance requirements.

The new policy comes six months prior to the Jan. 1, 2020 ADS-B Out airspace mandate taking effect. Under the new policy, the FAA is requiring operators to assess how their aircraft’s position-reporting avionics will perform along their filed flight plans.

In the pre-flight planning process, the FAA is requiring pilots to use a preflight availability prediction tool to asses whether or not their aircraft’s GPS receivers can meet the navigation integrity category (NIC) performance requirements outlined by the technical standard order used by the agency to define the accuracy of position reporting equipment. NIC refers to the containment radius around an aircraft’s reported position, which must be accurate within less than 0.2 nautical miles of its actual airborne position.

Under the new policy, the FAA is specifically targeting operators of aircraft GPS receivers that are not wide area augmentation system (WAAS) compatible. Operators who equip with non-WAAS receivers are more likely to experience performance outages that limit their access to the airspace defined in the rule.

When assessing the GPS performance for their intended flight plan, if an operator determines that the predicted performance will support the proposed flight, the FAA will require the pilot to adjust the route to avoid the area where degraded performance could occur.

“After an operator receives a satisfactory preflight availability prediction for an intended operation, there may be certain conditions that warrant a subsequent prediction. For example, a change in departure time or a change in the GPS satellite constellation as indicated by a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) may have an effect on the predicted GPS performance for the intended operation,” the policy statement said.

There is also an acknowledgement by the FAA regarding its Exemption 12555 policy, a one-time grant of exemption for aircraft from 14 CFR § 91.227 requirements for operators using GPS receivers when their performance falls below the requirement and backup surveillance is unavailable. The FAA established that exemption to address the performance characteristics associated with the three different variants of GPS receivers that are currently found in air transport category aircraft.

Operators that have qualified for Exemption 12555 do not need to perform a preflight availability prediction. Those who fall outside of the exemption and are flying aircraft with GPS receivers that do not meet the necessary NIC and NAC performance requirements must use either their own preflight availability prediction tool or the FAA’s Service Availability Prediction Tool (SAPT).

Additionally, when pilots receive NOTAMS indicating that planned government GPS interference testing impacting ADS-B Out airspace occurs, they will not require operators to avoid that airspace. A technical evaluation of such occurrences by the agency determined that they have no way of guaranteeing whether an aircraft flying through affected airspace would actually experience GPS performance degradation.

The new pre-flight policy is the latest in a series of new guidelines established by the FAA to help airspace users transition from relying on ground-based radar to ADS-B as the primary air traffic surveillance source in the U.S. In April, a new policy for non-equipped aircraft was published noting that air traffic controllers will only approve non-ADS-B flights when they’re convenient. Avionics manufacturers and installation facilities have also been working to ensure operators know how to deal with ADS-B failures.

As the 2020 mandate draws closer, the commercial airline segment of the U.S. flying community appears to be on track to have nearly all of their aircraft requiring upgrades equipped. The general aviation community remains the lowest equipped segment, with the U.S. registered helicopter fleet remaining the lowest equipped segment.


“FAA Issues Update on Unleded AVGAS Research”

A fuel under evaluation as a replacement for leaded avgas for the 170,000 aircraft in the piston-powered general aviation fleet will need “additional refinement,” and three new fuels have undergone preliminary testing in 2019, the FAA said in an update on its Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative.

AOPA participates in the PAFI program as a member of the PAFI Steering Group (PSG), and supports the ultimate goal of approving a high-octane, unleaded avgas that will be “environmentally safer than leaded fuels, yet as operationally safe as leaded fuels in the current fleet of piston engine aircraft.” In October 2018 the FAA had forecast a completion-of-testing target date of mid-2020. The timeline estimate was based on testing a fuel under development by Shell—now the lone participant in the PAFI process after another entrant, Swift Fuels, withdrew. At the outset of the PAFI process in 2014, 17 fuels had been submitted for analysis, which the program “screened down” after a rigorous evaluation process.

According to the June 2019 program update, “PAFI’s focus during the first 6 months of 2019 has included testing at the William J. Hughes Technical Center of an optimized Shell fuel and screening testing of 3 fuels not previously part of the PAFI program. The scope of PAFI has continued to evolve with the preliminary evaluation of 3 other fuels representing PAFI’s commitment to research and evaluate all candidate unleaded fuels. Test results with the optimized Shell fuel were not successful with testing indicating additional refinements are required.”

As the program to bring about a safe transition to an unleaded avgas has evolved, experience “has served to accentuate the extent of the challenge to identify an acceptable unleaded fuel for general aviation. Accordingly, it is recognized that the scope of PAFI must expand to support the necessary research and development while engaging other candidate fuels for evaluation,” the FAA said, calling for continued support for PAFI as “a collaborative government and industry process.”

The FAA update concluded by noting that “the FAA and industry members of the PAFI Steering Group continue to work with multiple fuel offerors to find the very best unleaded avgas solution for the GA fleet.” It said its determination to find an environmentally friendly fuel has not wavered, “regardless of the amount of time and effort it may take to achieve.”

Airlines Avoid Iran Airspace After FAA Order

US Federal Aviation Administration, The FAA, has issued an emergency order prohibiting US carriers from flying in the over water area of Iranian airspace until further notice.

The main reason for this decision is the escalation of tensions and military activity within close proximity to high volume civil aircraft routes, as well as Iran’s willingness to use long-range missiles in international airspace.

Below is the full statement from The FAA:


#FAA issued #NOTAM warning pilots that flights are not permitted in the overwater area of the Tehran Flight Information Region until further notice, due to heightened military activities and increased political tensions. …


#FAA Statement: The FAA has issued a Notice to Airmen (#NOTAM) prohibiting U.S.-registered aircraft from operating over the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. The NOTAM applies to all U.S. air carriers and commercial operators.

11:53 AM – Jun 21, 2019
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United Airlines has suspended all flights between New Jersey’s Newark airport and both Indian cities, New Delhi and Mumbai, until at least September 1st.

“Given current events in the Middle East and the continued closure of Pakistani airspace, we have decided to suspend our service between EWR and Mumbai and New Delhi in India, resuming on Sept. 1, 2019.”

The U.S. ban does not apply to airlines from other countries, but OPSGROUP, which provides guidance to operators, said carriers globally would take it into consideration.

Airlines like British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Lufthansa, Emirates Airlines, Etihad Airways, Malaysia Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Qantas, and KLM said they will re-route their flights to avoid the area.

Sam Chui recently flew Singapore Airlines flight SQ345 from Zurich to Singapore. The flight had an almost 2 hour delay in departure due to the latest Middle East conflict and air traffic clearance in the Middle East. The flight track on the left photo took place on 22/04/19 and the one on the right photo on 22/06/19. The current flight route is avoiding flying over the Persian Gulf.